Saturday, May 23, 2020
When I glance over the world history book, I find its a very interesting thing that the U.S has experienced twice Bourgeois Revolution while Britain only has had once. Its known to all that in the U.S the first bourgeois revolution is the War of Independence though which America has won the national independence. And the second is the Civil War. It is the latter that has really cleared the path for the rapid growth of capitalism and has made America a most powerful country in the world. It can be seen from this that the Civil War is an important chapter in the American history book. Its necessary to recall the past. Prewar: The Civil War broke out in 1861 and ended in 1865. During this four years the war cost America 618,000Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As we all know that after the War of Independence economy developed very quickly in the N-states. The capitalism grew up in a quite good environment. On the contrary, farming or plantation still remained its important place in the S-states. And even they kept the slavery valid while the N-states had all outlawed slavery by 1830. In 1860 industry in the N-states ranked fourth in the world. Output value had reached 1,880,000,000 dollar. At the same time the S-states owned 4,000,000 slaves. Compared with the N-states, the S-states developed more slowly. This unbalance between two regions led contradictions. The four principal contradictions are shown as following: Resource: The N-states wanted to protect resource The S-states sold resource to other countries (mainly Britain). Market: The N-states needed to sell more products to develop capitalism. The S-states bought products from Britain. Tax: The N-states wanted to higher tariff rate to protect industry The S-states wanted to lower tariff rate. Labor Force: The N-states needed more labor forces. The S-states kept a great number of labor forces (black slaves) And now with the development of the Westward Movement a new problem was arisen that it was necessary to keep slavery in these newly established states valid or not. Obviously all of these had been the obstacles to the rapid development of capitalism. Later slavery becameShow MoreRelatedThe War Of The Civil War921 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThere are no doubts that acts of war can have a negative impact on the individuals involved. There are countless stories of the soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences in the war, and how it affected their lives, families, and attitudes. However, there is a large demographic that is hardly accounted for: children, specifically during the Civil War era. Understanding the children that lived in the time of the Civil War is important because it affected their future careers, shaped their attitudes towards race, and affectedRead MoreCivil War And A Revolution1196 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat a civil war is going on there. On the other hand, others argue that it is a rev olution against oppression that has been brutally responded to. Evaluating the situation in Syria requires solid understanding of specific terms of a civil war and a revolution. Also, is there a general consensus on what a civil war or a revolution is? Can the situation in Syria simply be classified into one of these two? The first important thing to know is that there is no single definition of a civil war that historiansRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War964 Words Ã |Ã 4 PageswasnÃ¢â¬â¢t one sole cause of the Civil War but there were many events that took the country to war and put brother against brother and states against states. Abraham Lincoln wanted to preserve the union and that could only be attained by civil war. Slavery which was an underlying cause for the war played its role in the division that divided the North against the South. Ultimately the preservation of the union, slavery and the consequences and conflicts leading to the Civil War all rested on President LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War1522 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCosts The war produced about 1,030,000 casualties, including about 620,000 soldier deathsÃ¢â¬âtwo-thirds by disease, and 50,000 civilians. The war accounted for roughly as many American deaths as all American deaths in other U.S. wars combined. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% in the North and 18% in the South. Union army dead, amounting to 15% of the over two million who served, was broken down as follows: Notably, their mortality rateRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOver the course of the Civil War, approximately three million men (and a handful of women disguised as men) served in the armed forces. By comparison, before the war, the U.S. Army consisted of only about 16,000 soldiers. The mobilization that took place over the four years of the war touched almost every extended family North and South and affected the far reaches of the country that had split in two. By warÃ¢â¬â¢s end, approximately 620,000 men had died, an estimate that is currently undergoing scrutinyRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War777 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe widespread violence that turned into the Civil War began with the election of 1860. Abraham Lincoln won the election of 1860 without a single vote from the states below the Ohio River. South Carolina was the first state to respond to Li ncolnÃ¢â¬â¢s election. On December 20, 1680, South Carolina seceded from the Union. South Carolina was the first of the Ã¢â¬Å"Original SevenÃ¢â¬ who seceded from the Union, including Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. This became known as Ã¢â¬Å"secessionRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War1039 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe civil war is by far the bloodiest war in American history. In the four deadly years of war, over six-hundred thousand Americans were killed. Many disputes that led to the civil war. These conflicts started under President James Buchanan who was a Democrat elected in the election of 1856. The issue of slavery, statesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights, the abolitionist movement, the Southern secession, the raid on HarperÃ¢â¬â¢s Ferry, the election of Abraham Lincoln all contributed to the start of the civil war. The civil warRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War Essay1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe story of this outlaw originated during the Civil War years, Apr il 12,1861-May 9, 1865. The War were the rich sat and watched, while the poor died. A War that wanted to keep black people as slaves permanently by the South (Confederates). Newton Knight quickly grew unhappy with the situation that the people of Jones County, where he was originally from were in. He also did not approved of slavery at all. Newt was the Outlaw who freed Jones County s people, whites and blacks alike when they mostRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War1284 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEnglish 30 January 2015 The Civil War There are many facts most people generally do not know about the Civil War, so much research is needed to improve oneÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge about the Civil War. Authors such as: Robert G. Lambert, Rustle B. Olwell, and Kay A. Chick were all helpful in this research. Many people think that everyone on the Union side of the war believed that blacks should be equal to whites. Most people also think that everyone on the Confederate side of the war believed in slavery. SomeRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War1723 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Civil War is by far the bloodiest war in American history. In the four deadly years of war, over six-hundred thousand Americans were killed. Many disputes that led to the civil war. These conflicts started even before the presidency of James Buchanan, who was a Democrat elected in the election of 1856. The issue of slavery, statesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights, the abolitionist movement, the Southern secession, the raid on HarperÃ¢â¬â¢s Ferry, the election of Abraham Linc oln all contributed to the start of the Civil War
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
I am the president of Asian Music Association, a club at my university that hosts monthly karaoke nights and music events. In my junior year, half of the executive members, including the former president, had graduated. To prevent the club from disappearing, I stood out and volunteered to be the new president. At the beginning, it was not easy because many important members had left, and I had to learn everything from zero. I first met with the existing executive board, and set our semester goal to be make AMA great again. We planned our budgets and events in advance, and as the president, I altered our marketing strategies and maximized the exposure of our events through posters, underpass paintings, Facebook events and newsletters. ByÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As a future dentist, I will have the responsibility to keep learning and collaborating with others in the health field, in order to improve my service for patients, and dentistry as a profession. Although I seem to be a confident person, I occasionally have doubts in my competencies. I understand that as a future dentist, I have to have faith in myself, for patients to trust me. To make myself a more confident person, I have actively participated in activities such as student clubs and volunteering. Gradually I have come to an understanding that confidence is not only a personality, but also a competency. When running a student club, if I dont reach out for help and cooperate with others with confidence, I will not be as successful. When volunteering, if I dont stand out to help other people with confidence, I will not be able to help anyone. I believe that as time passes, I will become a person with more faith and less doubts in myself. My family has had a unique and profound influence on me. Raised by parents and grandparents who are all doctors, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve naturally acquired traits such as patience, cautiousness, diligence, and kindness. These traits, though not measured by grades and experiences, are needed for succeeding both as a dental student and as a dentist. In addition to following my eldersÃ¢â¬â¢ paths, I hope to innovate and fight the many challenges in dentistry. Also, since age 14, when I startedShow MoreRelated How a Bill Becomes Law Essay1153 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdifficult. The Constitution settles how bills become law in the United States. The procedure is operose and can take significant time to complete. The course materials of week three offer more than enough information on how the procedure works. This essay will, mainly, use the course materials to describe the process of how a bill becomes a law. The process of transforming a bill into a law requires the participation of both the Leg islative branch and Executive branch of government. Before thereRead MoreJock Culture By Robert Lipsyte814 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the essay Ã¢â¬Å"Jock CultureÃ¢â¬ by Robert Lipsyte, the author explains the lifestyle of jocks and how there are two different types of people in the world. Lipsyte has very good points in his essay that the author mainly agrees with the essay but the author also believe there are few points that the author also disagrees with. The author believes that there is jock culture in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. Although it seems like people are beginning to change. Jocks are not beginning to act like jocks anymore and peopleRead MoreUpheaval and Renewal in Egypt and Syria 1585 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespower. This essay aims at comparing and contrasting this process in Egypt and Syria starting from 1970, year in which both countries saw the coming into power of new leaders, Anwar Sadat and Hafiz Al-Asad, and a subsequent change from the previous regimeÃ¢â¬â¢s policies. Given the shortage of space and the complexity of the matter, the focus will be only on the most evident aspects of authoritarian power consolidation under those two leaders without going too much into the details. First the essay will addressRead MoreHow Did the Framers Guard Against Tyranny?1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesover states governments, no president, no judicial branch and the government could not pay debts because they could not force states to pay taxes. As the cons out-weighed the pros, it was clear that something had to be done. The framers decided to create a new government completely. The question was; How do we give the government the power it needs while preventing tyranny? This essay will address the many and varied was the constitution guards against tyranny. In this essay, the word tyranny refersRead MoreStem Studies And Liberal Arts Education1145 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesquestion of which path they should follow. Author Michael Roth, president of Wesleyan University, is a strong believer that the liberal arts ed ucation is a field of study that needs to be Ã¢â¬Å"protected,Ã¢â¬ as in it needs to stay thriving. Roth uses severeral rhetorical strategies to make an effective, yet persuasive argument. First, Michael Roth is the president of Wesleyan University, in Middletown, Connecticut, and pervious president of California College of the Arts (CCA). Roth is a history and humanitiesRead MoreMy Ambition In Life Essay To Become A C1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesambition in life essay to become a collector Free Essays on My Ambition In Life To Become A Collector for students. Use our papers to help you with yours. My Ambition Become a Collector: exaggeration of your dream and thoughts of how you want to be in your life. My ambition is to become an IAS officer. Though I. My ambition in life is to become a teacher. There are a number of reasons for my choice. First, about 35 per cent of the people in India are illiterate. They are. Plan essay thirsha WebsitesRead MoreDetecting Political Propaganda By Clyde R. Miller Essay1504 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDetecting Political Propaganda In the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬Å"How to Detect Political PropagandaÃ¢â¬ the founder of the Institute for Propaganda Analysis, Clyde R. Miller, argues that citizens should be aware of how to detect propaganda and know how it works to effectively think of our options. The author explains that propaganda devices appeal to our emotions and influence us to settle for Ã¢â¬Å"fewer options and actionsÃ¢â¬ . According to Miller, there are seven common propaganda devices that we should easily recognizeRead MoreThe Perils Of Presidential Democracy By Juan Linz882 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The essay titled Ã¢â¬Å"The Perils of Presidential DemocracyÃ¢â¬ by Juan Linz is about two different systems of democracy, parliamentary, and presidential. LinzÃ¢â¬â¢s main argument is that in countries with cases of deep political divide, parliamentary forms of government generally offer the best hope of preserving democracy. Juan Linz proves these claims by highlighting points that discredit the presidential system of democracy. He begins by bringing to light that only one other presidential system has lastedRead MoreThe Hunger Games786 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesdeep, rich mythology presenting an interesting and unforgettable story that is relatable to her own world. In addition trust and government control follow shortly after survival for both the relationships of Katniss and Peeta and the power hungry President SnowÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Within Katniss are the undeniable instinct to survive and the undying will to push onward. Katniss proves herself, bearing great survival skills that are imperative for her own well-being. Ã¢â¬Å"It was slow going at first, but I was determinedRead MoreLiberal Arts Misperceptions1026 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinformation is being mistakenly spread, numerous liberal arts colleges are taking the fall. To combat the onslaught of negative publicity, university officers are beginning to speak out to discredit the invalid claims. Sanford J. Ungar, a journalist and president of Goucher College, is one of the faculty members actively trying to disprove the accusations against liberal arts colleges and educations. In his February 2010 article from the academic journal The Chronicle of Higher Education, Ungar gives readers
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
After watching this video, I asked myself Ã¢â¬Å"Do I speak American? Ã¢â¬ Absolutely, the answer was no. In the past, I thought American English was only a language which pronounced Ã¢â¬Å"rÃ¢â¬ heavily. Surprisingly, according to the map of dialect, America can be divided by seven parts. We will write a custom essay sample on My Thoughts About Ã¢â¬Å"Do You Speak American?Ã¢â¬ or any similar topic only for you Order Now They are Eastern New English, NYC,Philadelphia, The North, The Midland, The South and The West. And different regions of America have different dialects. In terms of the dialect of American English, I have a re-understanding of this language. I find it is interesting, even surprising, and I am more curious about that. The dialects of American English is really interesting. Honestly, when I hear a conversation or a speech, I can hardly recognize the accents without special note, although sometimes I can recognize the obvious accents according to the meaning of the sentence. For example, most young California say [? ] to replace [? ], say Ã¢â¬Å"likeÃ¢â¬ as Ã¢â¬Å"lakeÃ¢â¬ . According to my personal experience, when I traveled to Miami, Florida, I heard that most people in there said Ã¢â¬Å"liftÃ¢â¬ as Ã¢â¬Å"leftÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, Net English used among young people is another part of interest. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"das koolÃ¢â¬ equals Ã¢â¬Å"that is coolÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"lolÃ¢â¬ means Ã¢â¬Å"laugh out loudÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"How ya doin hunÃ¢â¬ is Ã¢â¬Å"how are you doing honey? Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"g2gÃ¢â¬ means Ã¢â¬Å"got to goÃ¢â¬ , etc. Maybe they think typing English in this way is more convenient and fashionable, however, I do not think so. Furthermore, experts recommend that TV series is a good way to recognize and learn dialects since the actors of a program are come from different regions. At last, teenagers prefer to use some new words of phrases to express an common meaning, such as Ã¢â¬Å"bling blingÃ¢â¬ refers to expensive jewelry. This is popular and sometimes I also use that to express myself. Actually, I am surprised about the dialects of American English in the following aspects. Firstly, in North America, people will laugh at lobstermanÃ¢â¬â¢s dialect and make fun with the way they speak. As far as I am concerned, we should respect different languages and cultures. Even though we cannot understand the way of communication, every dialect must has its own value to exist. Moreover, although people dislike some dialects, they can always imitate those dialects they hate. It is unbelievable. In addition, I watched these three DVDs without subtitle. So when I watched the CD2 which introduced the dialects in the mid-land, I found it was difficult for me to understand what people said. However, it is easier to understand what the north and west people said. I think it means that the people of mid-land and south have strong accents. Frankly, there are some points that I do not know before I watching this video. First of all, Philadelphia shakes the American speech more than any other city. Secondly, the Black and the White cannot communicate with each other by using English at the beginning. Thirdly, some people who come from the mid-land consider New Yorker speak bad English, since New Yorker say Ã¢â¬Å"waterÃ¢â¬ as Ã¢â¬Å"[w? :d? ]Ã¢â¬ . To be honest, as for me, I like the dialect of New York. Fourthly, some pronounciation of dialect are totally different from the original pronounciation. For example, in Ohio and Michigan, Ã¢â¬Å"yinsÃ¢â¬ means Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬ , and in north, Ã¢â¬Å"ayuhÃ¢â¬ is equal to Ã¢â¬Å"yesÃ¢â¬ , etc. Finally, looking at magazines to find new words is a job, its purpose is to update the dictionary. To sum up, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think I am speaking American even though I am in New York now. The dialects in United States are diverse. In my opinion, dialect is a component of cultural activities. And some dialects are related to history, some are related to the life style of different region. There are a variety of expressions for dialects. Those include the differences of pronounciation, the new words for common meaning, net English, etc. Most important, no matter what kind of language we say, we should respect all of them and admit the existence value of them. At last, I think watching different American TV series is a good way for me to improve my American English. How to cite My Thoughts About Ã¢â¬Å"Do You Speak American?Ã¢â¬ , Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
An analysis of Aristotles philosophy of what makes a good and complete life. This paper discusses the philosophy of good life given by the great thinker Aristotle. It looks at Aristotles view that there are certain external and internal goods available to man, and it is through the attainment of internal goods that man is able to live a life that can be identified as a good life. Aristotle was the prized student of Socrates and his works though are not widely available are still considered to be of great significant to the world of euphemism. The philosophical thought is incomplete without the works of Aristotle as his contribution is huge and some of his views are studies even today by the students of philosophy. Aristotles theory of a good life is based one certain actions and virtues which fall in the realm of ethics. It was the view of Aristotle that good life means a man should act while in possession of certain external goods. We will write a custom essay sample on Aristotle: The Good Life or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page By this it means that one should possess all moral and intellectual virtues in order to qualify as someone with a good life. The moral virtues to him were prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance. All these virtues are based on reason and it was the Aristotelian view that reason and logic should be given precedence over passion. Intellectual virtues are based on pure theoretical contemplation and they cannot be considered very practical as they seem to arise from Aristotles views on logic and a Stoic philosophy which meant that man must first not act purely on impulse or passion but should think carefully before acting.
Monday, March 23, 2020
The behavior of people is highly influenced by the kind of environment they are exposed to. Individuals do not behave in the same way because they stay in different environments. The environment includes the physical location and the type of people a person interacts with (Griffin, Moorehead, 2012). On the other hand, culture influences human behavior.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Relationship between Clients and Employees specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The way people behave can have great impact on the behavior of others. In order to enjoy working, employees should be able to fit in the culture of the working environment. A person has to adjust and be able to relate well with the other employees and clients. It is only through this that he or she will be socially accepted in that particular place. If the physical setting of an organization is favorable for the employees, they will desire to stay there lon ger and deliver the best of their abilities in the services they offer. Therefore, the physical setting of an organization should be designed in such a way that it encourages social interaction among and between the employees as well as the clients. Employees who get into contact with the clients must maintain good relationships with them to ensure they are maintained. They should behave in the best way possible to promote a positive impact on how the clients perceive them. The physical plan in an organization can also affect the behavior of people (Griffin, Moorehead, 2012). Crowded areas do not allow socialization because people are not free to move from one place to another. For this reason, many organizations create spaces where their employees can interact. They can have staff lounges, which employees relax during the free times they get over the course of the day. When two or more of the workers meet at that particular place, they share a lot and through that, they build a re lationship that changes their behavior. Others have recreational facilities where their employees can play to release tension. They even set aside days to hold sporting activities and this entirely works to the benefit of both the employees and the employer. The employees will reduce the stress that accumulates in the course of their duties and hence will be able to work more. That will lead to increased productivity thus making the organization increase its output and sales. The absence of such things makes the employees dull and may exhibit negative behaviors.Advertising Looking for report on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Any organization has a hierarchal structure. In a big organization, not all the staff members are led by a single person. There must be sub groups within the staff led by different individuals. The leaders of these subgroups are answerable to the overall leader. The leaders have more power tha n their subjects do. The behavior of employees is also determined by the structure of an organization (Hellriegel Slocum, 2007). The workers know that at the end of the day, somebody will evaluate their performance. Many have a negative attitude towards their bosses especially when they are criticized for not carrying out their duties in the right way. This can create a feeling of hatred, which can result to more problems. Others work to the best of their abilities to ensure that they do not cross with those who head them. Nevertheless, some leaders may be too proud and cause a strained relationship among themselves and the employees. Sometimes an informal organization structure can exist. This mainly occurs when there is a great age difference between the employees (Hellriegel Slocum, 2007). The young ones will find themselves been commanded by the elder ones. The same case applies where the population of the employees is composed of people who have served the organization for di fferent lengths of times. Those with less experience can find themselves at the mercy of the more experienced. The administrator should work towards promoting a good relationship between and among the employees and the clients. He or she should not be biased in anyway, that is, all the employees should be treated equally according to their working levels. A free environment whereby the employees feel free to air their views should also be created. Any issues that they need addressed should follow the right protocol. This way, the administrator ensures that the people working there feel comfortable, something that promotes their productivity. The number of clients in any given organization can be determined by the behavior of the employees towards them. Creating a good relationship between these two groups of people can maintain the clients and even attract more (Hellriegel Slocum, 2007). Employees can only relate well with the clients if they first relate well with the administrato rs.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Relationship between Clients and Employees specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The way employees relate with their clients determines how the latter perceives them. If they do not have a positive attitude towards the administrators, the atmosphere in meetings will be tensed. This kind of relationship will kill the morale of the workers and that will eventually affect the production of the organization. Reference List Griffin, R. W., Moorehead, G. (2012). Organizational behavior: Managing people and organizations. Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning. Hellriegel, D., Slocum, J. W. (2007). Organizational behavior. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western. This report on Relationship between Clients and Employees was written and submitted by user Abrielle Anthony to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Understanding of how Linux was originated Understanding of how Linux was originated INTRODUDCTIONABSTRACTUNIXLINUS AND LINUXHow Linux was developedHow Linux was diffused.Where the Original funding did came from?What happened about the IPR? Was the innovation patented?Why is Linux Successful?Effects of Linux on the MarketThe Effect of Linux on the Society.ConclusionABSTRACTRelated INTRODUDCTION Linux, the flagship of open source software (OOS) (Applewhite, 2003), has been reported to be the significant force that has strengthened some developing countries in the technology map.(Wilburn 1997; UNCTAD 2002). It is said to be the backbone for accelerating the growth of low income countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ IT industries and it intend to increase their tendency to innovate. The main aim ofÃ this paper is to gain an understanding of how Linux was originated. How it diffused fromÃ the innovator to its current position on the S curve. We attempt to achieve this by assessing its market share and the circumstances that lead to its success. ABSTRACT Linux is an operating system that originated from Unix operating system. This paper analyzes how it came about, how it was developed and diffused. It also emphasizes on the position of the innovation on the S curve, how successful the product was, its effects on the market and on the society. UNIX In order to understand the popularity of Linux, we need to travel back to 30years ago when computer use to be as big as a rock or a football stadium. While the size of those computers was a problem, one thing made it even worse. Every computer has to run on a specific operating system. Being able to work with one system does not guarantee you could work with another. Therefore, it was difficult both for the users and the system administrators. Technologically the world was not that advanced, so they had to cope with the size of the computer for another decade. In 1969, a team of developers in Bell Lab laboratories started working on solution to software problems and they developed new operating system which was (Machtelt Garrrels, 2008) simple and elegant Written in the C programming language instead of in assembly code Able to recycle code. The Bell Labs developers named their project Ã¢â¬Å"UNIXÃ¢â¬ . The code recycling features were important. Until then, all computers were written on a special code developed for one system. Unix on the other hand needed only a small part of that special code, which is now commonly named the Kernel. (Machtelt Garrels, 2008). The operating system and all other functions were built around this kernel and written in a higher programming language, C. This language was specifically created for the UNIX system.Ã Using this technique, it was easier to develop an operating system that run on many different type of hardware. LINUS AND LINUX By the beginning of the 90s home PC were powerful to run on full blown UNIX (M. Tim Jones, 2005) Linus Torvalds, a computer science student at the University of Helsinki in Finland thought it would be a nice idea to have a sort of freely available academic version of UNIX, and so, he started to code.Ã He started by developing device drivers and hard-drive access, and by September he had a basic design he called Version 0.01 (Ramesh Bangia at el, 2007). This Kernel which is called Linux was combined with the GNU system to produce a complete free operating system. Torvalds released an open source code for linux, which allow anyone to access and modify the source code at no cost (Sander Van Vugt, 2009). As a result, anyone who has the knowledge of linux can modify and change the system. Linux became most popular operating system because of its free source distribution and compatibility with other hardwares (Vijay Shekhar, 2006). How Linux was developed (Nicholas Wells, 2003) On January 5, 1992, Linux Version 0.12 was released, an improved, stable kernel. Then another Version 0.95 was released to reflect the fact that it was becoming the full-featured system. After that, Linux became an underground fact with a growing group of distributed programmers that develop and enhance the source code baseline to this day. Torvalds released Version 0.11 under a freeware license of his own plan, but then released Version 0.12 under the well established GNU General Public License and more software was created for Linux over the next couple of years (Richard L. Petersen, 2005). Linux continued to improve in the 90s and started to be used in large-scale application like networking, database serving and proving ready for production use (Richard Petersen, 2008). Version 2.2 which is a major update of Linux Kernel was released in 1999. In 2000, most computer companies supported Linux in one way or the other, recognizing a common standard that could finally reunify the fractured world of the Unix wars (Micheal H. Jang, 2003). The next major release was Version 2.4 in January 2001, which provides compatibility with upcoming generations of IntelÃ¢â¬â¢s 64-Bit Itanium processor computers (Micheal H. Jang, 2006). How Linux was diffused. The diffusion of an innovation is seen as a social process where the innovative idea or product is adopted as a result of the existence of different types of adopter categories (Owen, 1991). Sheth (1998) posited that the fundamental factors that, which influence the propensity to resist or adopt an innovation, are, the perceived risks associated with adopting the innovation, and the level of habit change in adopting the innovation. In reviewing the diffusion of Linux, diffusion occurred when the perceived financial and performance risks, and the changes in habit that were required to use the product were apparently low and free to a large population of consumers. Linux has a very low total cost of ownership (TCO). A survey conducted in the U.S., Brazil, France, Germany, Sweden and Japan, for instance indicated that 50% of the respondents perceived Linux having a lower TCO (N Kshetri, 2005) Consider the initial investment. The price of MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s entry-level operating system was Ã £50 in 2002. Taking Ã £300 as the average price of a PC, it amounts to 15% of the total cost of a PC. Linux, on the other hand can be freely downloaded or purchased with a nominal distribution fee. LinuxÃ¢â¬â¢s cost saving potential is more appealing to users from developing countries. PCs with Linux as the operating system are, more attractive in developing countries. For instance, LG Electronics, the South Korean multinational sells Linux-based desktop in India at prices lower than brands using commercial operating systems (N Kshetri, 2005). Linux was easily diffused from the stage of innovators through the segments that eventually make up the majority of adopters because of its free and open source operating system. Users and developers of Linux can easily access and modify the source code at no cost. Another key factor that accelerates the diffusion of Linux is its ability to run on old machines. (Gray 2000) Linux can even run on 486 chips machine unlike Microsoft Windows XP Professional that requires a minimum of 233 MHz processor and 64 MB of RAM. This advantage of Linux is more important for users in developing countries. In many cities and regions, local associations known as the Linux User Groups (LUGs) helps to diffuse this free software. They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations, training, technical support and operating system installation to new users. (Erricos John, et al 2002) stated that the adoption of Linux was due to the social network composed of innovators, early adopters, early majorityÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦and diffusion in this case could be social backbone that lowers the risk of using this innovation.Ã The rate of diffusion has risen from the innovators to the late majority as shown in the diffusion curve. (See fig 1). Where the Original funding did came from? After the release of Linux by Linus Torvalds, the source code was made available on the internet for anyone who wants to develop the software. The innovator neither forms a spin out company nor sells the idea. The source code was made available on the internet and developers started developing new versions of Linux. What happened about the IPR? Was the innovation patented? Linux was developed as a cooperative Open Source effort over the internet. So no company or institution has control over it. Most Linux software is developed as Open Source software. This means that the source code is freely distributed along with the application (Richard Petersen, 2007). Programmers over the internet contribute to a software package development by modifying and correcting the source code. Linux is an open source operating system. Its source code is included in all distribution and is freely available on the internet (Aries Technology Inc, 2003-2007). There are other major software projects that are open source, for instance KDE and GNOME. The Netscape Communicator Web browser package has also become open source, with its source code freely available on internet (Neil Smyth, 2010). Open source software is protected by public licenses. These prevent commercial companies from taking control of open source software by adding a few modifications, copyrighting those changes and selling the software as their own product. The most popular public license is the GNU General Public License provided by the free software foundation. This is the license that Linux is distributed under (Dr Mukesh Dhunna et al, 2010). The GNU General Public License retains the copyright, freely licensing the software with the note that the software and modification made to it will always be freely available. However, there are other public license created to support different kinds of open source projects, for instance the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) lets commercial application uses GNU licensed software libraries. Linux is currently copyrighted under the GNU public license provided by the free software foundation, and it is often referred to as GNU software. GNU software is distributed free, provided it is freely distributed to others. Ã Why is Linux Successful? Linus operating system for servers and PCs has really gained ground. It is now pushed by big firms such as IBM, Intel, HP, and Dell and is used by large companies like DaimlerChrysler and Morgan Stanley. It open architecture makes it compatible to run on any computer architecture: in the hand-held ARM-based iPAQ and the mainframe IBM system z9, system z10, in devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers (Graham Glass et al, 2005). The cost of production is relatively low, because it can be downloaded off the web for free. Because the source code is widely available on the net, developers all around the world can contribute freely on any development or improvement of the programme. This represents an investment in time and people than ever a cash-flush giant as Microsoft cannot match. Linux operating system is highly reliable and secured which makes it difficult for worms to attack (desktoplinux.com/news/NS6909870737.html ) However, the real success for Linux came from its backing from the major computer manufacturers, who want to use it as a competitive tool against Microsoft (Eric Viardot, 2004 ). For instance, Linux got a big boost when Intel unfastened its close association with Microsoft and started producing chips for Linux. Such backing is seen as a commitment to the long-term of this operating software by major corporations, which desperately needed freedom from the Microsoft monopoly. Effects of Linux on the Market The Linux market is growing rapidly, and the revenue of servers, desktops and packaged software running Linux was expected to go beyond Ã £22.2 billion in 2008. A report from IDCÃ¢â¬â¢s Q1 2007 financial report shows that Linux held a total of 12.7% of the overall sever market at that time (IDC Q1 2007 report). However, this estimate is based on the number of servers sold by various companies, and did not include server hardware purchased separately which had Linux installed on it later. In September 2008, Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer acknowledged that 60% of web servers run Linux versus 40% that run windows server (Nicholai James, 2008). Primarily based on web server statistics, most companies estimated that the market share of Linux range from less than 1% to 4.8%. In comparison, Microsoft operating system hold more than 85% (Beer Stan, 2007). The emerge of Linux did not kill its competitors (Microsoft, Mac Operating System) rather it encourages innovation in the technological industry. Ã¢â¬Å"In the second half of 2003, linux sales in the Chinese PC market exceed 800,000 copies. Similarly, in November 2003, Sun announced a deal to sell 200 million copies of Linux-based Java desktop to the Chinese government to be use throughout the country. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Linux market grew by 27.1% in 2005 and the Chinese research IT firm predicted an annual growth rate of 49.3% from 2005-2009 for the Chinese Linux server software marketÃ¢â¬ (N Kshetri, 2007). Linux has also made huge success in the film industry. Titanic was the first major film produced on Linux server in 1997. Since then, major studios including Dreamworks Animation, Pixar, Weta Digital, and Industrial Light Magic have migrated to Linux. According to the Linux Movies Group, more than 95% of the servers and desktops at large animation and visual effects companies use Linux (linuxmovies.org/). The Effect of Linux on the Society. Linux created a lasting impact in the technological industries. Linux has been the primary source of technological innovations originated for and used in developing countries (N Kshetri, 2007). For instance, Encore software of India has design a handheld internet appliance, Simputer, based on Linux. At a cost of below Ã £150, Simputer provides internet and email access in local languages; micro banking applications; speech recognition and text-to-speech conversion. Computador Popular (Popular Computers) in Brazil that costs less than Ã £200 runs Linux. Computador is an internet appliance without a floppy or a hard disk and features many attributes in a moderately-price PC (N Kshetri, 2007). Consumers can also buy inexpensive hard disk and other accessories. Due to its low cost of ownership and open source operating system available, it has help users mostly in the developing countries to lay hand on a computer of their own and create room for developers to be more creative. Conclusion The development of Linux came at the right time. The innovation resulted from a need pull. Before the invention of Linux operating system, every computer runs on separate operating system which makes it very difficult for developers because they had to write different programs for different operating system. Linus Torvalds wrote the source code for Linux and made it available on the web. The operating system is registered under GNU which made it possible for anyone to improve on it. The low cost of ownership and open source operating system accelerates the diffusion of the innovation. However, due to its availability to run on any other operating system (new/old), it dominated the market share of the technological industries. From my point of view, Linux is highly dominated in Asia and Africa because of its low cost. ABSTRACT Linux is an operating system that originated from Unix operating system. This paper analyzes how it came about, how it was developed and diffused. It also emphasizes on the position of the innovation on the S curve, how successful the product was, its effects on the market and on the society. Ã INTRODUDCTION Linux, the flagship of open source software (OOS) (Applewhite, 2003), has been reported to be the significant force that has strengthened some developing countries in the technology map.(Wilburn 1997; UNCTAD 2002). It is said to be the backbone for accelerating the growth of low income countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ IT industries and it intend to increase their tendency to innovate. The main aim ofÃ this paper is to gain an understanding of how Linux was originated. How it diffused fromÃ the innovator to its current position on the S curve. We attempt to achieve this by assessing its market share and the circumstances that lead to its success. Ã Ã REFERENCES 1Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Machtelt Garrels, 2008. Introduction to Linux, A Hands on Guide. 2Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã M.Tim Jones, 2005. GNU/Linux application Programming. 3Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ramesh Bangia, Balvir Singh, Ramesh Bangia, 2007. Operating System and Software Diagnostics. 4Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Sander Van Vugt, 2009. Beginning the Linux Command Line. 5Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Vijay Shekhar, 2006. Red Hat Linux- The Complete Bible. 6Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Nicholas Wells, 2003. Guide to Linux installation and administration. 7Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Richard L. Petersen, 2005. Red Hat Enterprise Linux Fedora Core 4 8Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Richard L. Petersen, 2008. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5: Administration Security Desktop. 9Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Micheal H. Jang, 2003. Mastering Red Hat Linux 9. 10Ã Ã Ã Ã N Kshetri, 2005. Diffusion Pattern of Linux: An Assessment on Major Technology Dimensions 11Ã Ã Ã Ã Gray F. Douglas, 2000. Ã¢â¬ËLow Cost Gives Linux Appeal, Say Supporters at ComdexÃ¢â¬â¢, IDG News Service, November 13, idg.net/idgns/2000/11/13/COMDEXLowCostGivesLinux.shtml 12Ã Ã Ã Ã Erricos John Kontoghiorghes, Stavros Siokos, 2002. Computational method in decision-making, economics and finance. 13Ã Ã Ã Ã Aries Technology Inc, 2003-2007. Aries Linux Essentials. 14Ã Ã Ã Ã Neil Smyth, 2010. Ubuntu 10.10 Essentials. 15Ã Ã Ã Ã N Kshetri, 2007. Increasing Returns and the Diffusion of Linux in China. 16Ã Ã Ã Ã Dr Mukesh Dhunna, J. B. Dixit, 2010. Information Technology in Business Management. 17Ã Ã Ã Ã Graham Glass, King Ables, 2005. Linux for Programmers and Users. 18Ã Ã Ã Ã Erick Viardot, 2004. Successful Marketing Strategy for high-tech firms, Volume 5. 19Ã Ã Ã Ã IDC Q1 2007 report. Linux-watch.com2007-05-2009 20Ã Ã Ã Ã Nicholai James, 2008. Ballmer Still Searching for an Answer to Google. pcworld.com/businesscenter/article/151568/ballmer_still_searching_for_an_answer_to_google.html 21Ã Ã Ã Ã Beer Stan, 2007. Vista to play second fiddle to Xp until 2009 22Ã Ã Ã Ã linuxmovies.org/
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Final report - Essay Example ?Southern AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËConfucian AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢ concluded that an integral component of leadership which is known as participative leadership varies in its presence across the three clusters, where the Western or Anglo culture observably places greater value upon participation to assist leadership in comparison with both of the remaining groups comprising of Asian countries. Swierczek (1991) however, negates this notion as per his research findings based on a sample of exclusively Asian managers who appreciate and favor participation over direction as leadership behaviors. Adler (1991) suggested that leadership models developed in the West and particularly in the United States have failed to address cross-cultural leadership dilemmas which has greatly diminished their applicability on a universal scale, this brings us to the perspective presented by Bass (1990) who claimed that commentators and researches must learn to identify the distinction between leadership models that are specific to the dimensions of a culture compared to those that can be applied on a global scale. This suggests that the specificity of Western models of leadership is not an indicator of their effectiveness or ineffectiveness but a measure of their applicability. Dorfman et al. (1997 pp.233-234) concluded that despite of the common belief that the universality of leadership models and behaviors is very weak or in some cases non-existent, three distinct leadership behaviors; contingent reward, supportive and charismatic displayed their subsistence on a global scale, while, participative, contingent punishment and directive approaches to leadership were found to exist only in particular cultures. Similarly, the cultural specificity of participative leadership behavior was also found by Ashkanasay (2002) while, the findings of Bass & Avolio, 1993) also reported that the application of leadership models on a cross-cultural basis is a possibility. Mills (2005) adopts a neutral stance in his analysis of Asian and Western leadership models, acknowledging that while both approaches are fairly distinctive from each other they also carry a certain extent of resemblance. In understanding why certain aspects of Asian leadership models are so dramatically different from their Western counterparts, Mills (2005) asserts that in an Asian business setting family and political associations are more prevalent than in Western organizations, Chu (2011) notes that a majority of large corporations in Asia are in fact family business. Moreover, it is also speculated whether culture actually is the principle factor in assessing the difference between Asian and Western leadership models or is it the varying economic, corporate and social development stages of the organizations existing in the two regions (Mills, 2005). Mills (2005) argues that from a Western point of view, CEOs of organizations operating in countries